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01-Apr-2017 09:47 by 5 Comments

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contamination of air, water, or soil by substances that are harmful to living organisms.Pollution can occur naturally, for example through volcanic eruptions, or as the result of human activities, such as the spilling of oil or disposal of industrial waste.[1] * A small amount of a given pollutant confined to a small area may cause harm, while a far larger amount of the same pollutant dispersed over a large area can be harmless.[2] [3] A “fundamental principle” of toxicology is “the dose makes the poison.”[4] .

The authors did not address the prospect that the higher ozone levels in rural areas were related to natural sources.[193] [194] [195] * Carbon monoxide levels are generally higher in homes than outdoors, and even greater levels of CO have been measured in rooms where people are smoking, indoor ice rinks (from ice resurfacing machines), homes with attached garages in which cars are idled, and indoor arenas where motocross races and tractor pulls are held.[214] * In nations where modern energy is unavailable or prohibitively expensive, people tend to burn more wood, animal dung, crop waste, and coal in open fires and simple home stoves.Once inhaled, these particles can affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects.[109] [110] * The EPA has itemized numerous methods to control PM emissions including paving unpaved roads, swapping out wood-burning stoves for propane logs, and installing particle filters/collection devices on engines and factories.[113] [114] [115] * In 2010, before the EPA made the clean air standard for PM2.5 stricter, the EPA estimated that 6% of the U. population lived in counties that did not meet the EPA’s clean air standards for PM2.5.[136] * The population most susceptible to elevated SO2 levels is asthmatics.Among healthy non-asthmatics, SO2 does not typically affect lung function until concentrations exceed 1,000 parts per billion (ppb).After exposure, the amount of time spent exercising before the onset of chest pain decreased by 4.2%, and the amount of time spent exercising before this specific electrocardiogram signal emerged decreased by 5.1%.[45] [46] * An EPA primary clean air standard for carbon monoxide is an 8-hour average of 9 parts per million (ppm), not to be exceeded more than once per year.[47] [48] From 1980 through 2014, the average U. ambient carbon monoxide level decreased by 85% as measured by this standard: * All of the U. population live in counties that meet the EPA’s clean air standards for carbon monoxide.[51] [52] Per the EPA, a “large proportion” of monitoring sites have CO levels that are below the limit that conventional instruments can detect (1 ppm).[53] * The EPA’s primary and secondary clean air standard for ozone is 0.075 parts per million (ppm) as measured by a 3-year average of the fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour concentration per year.[70] [71] From 1980 through 2014, the average U. ambient ozone level decreased by 33% as measured by this standard: * Lead (Pb) is a metallic element that can be released as particles into the air.These airborne particles can be directly inhaled, or they can settle out of the air into water and food supplies, and thus be ingested orally.[76] Lead can accumulate in the human body over extended periods, resulting in a condition known as “cumulative poisoning.” This can impair cognitive ability and cause conditions such as high blood pressure and kidney dysfunction.[77] [78] * The population most susceptible to elevated lead concentrations is children.Experiments performed for this study showed that higher ozone levels in the rural areas negatively impacted the trees’ growth rates.

Although the city had higher peak ozone levels than the rural areas, the rural areas had higher long-term average levels than the city.

It is intended to provide increased protection against health effects associated with short-term exposures, as opposed to the preexisting standard, which is based on the average annual exposure.[104] [105] From 1980 through 2014, the average U. ambient nitrogen dioxide decreased by 57% as measured by this standard: is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets …

made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles.

To establish a baseline, participants engaged in mild exercise on a treadmill while measurements were made of the time it took to develop chest pain and a specific electrocardiogram signal that indicates insufficient oxygen supply to the heart.

Subjects repeated this test after resting for about an hour while being exposed to elevated CO levels ranging from 42 to 202 parts per million (mean of 117).

EPA’s task is to establish standards that are neither more nor less stringent than necessary for these purposes.

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